CAIRO — Opponents of Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi staged protests in Cairo on Tuesday against an Islamist-backed draft constitution that has divided Egypt but looks set to be approved in the second half of a referendum this weekend.
Several hundred protesters outside the presidential palace chanted "Revolution, revolution, for the sake of the constitution" and called on Morsi to "Leave, leave, you coward!". While the protest was noisy, numbers were down on previous demonstrations.
Morsi obtained a 57 percent "yes" vote for the constitution in the first part of the referendum last weekend, state media said, less than he had hoped for.
The opposition, which says the basic law is too Islamist, will be encouraged by the result but is unlikely to win the second part this Saturday, which is to be held in districts seen as even more sympathetic towards Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood.
The National Salvation Front opposition coalition said there were widespread voting violations last Saturday and called for protests to "bring down the invalid draft constitution".
The Ministry of Justice said it was appointing judges to investigate complaints of voting irregularities.
Opposition marchers converged on Tahrir Square, cradle of the revolution that toppled Hosni Mubarak almost two years ago, and Morsi's presidential palace, still ringed with tanks after earlier protests.
A protester at the presidential palace, Mohamed Adel, 30, said: "I have been camping here for weeks and will continue to do so until the constitution that divided the nation, and for which people died, gets scrapped."
Shortly after midnight, a few hundred protesters who had planned to spend the night in tents set up around the presidential palace were attacked with stones.
"Unknown people threw stones at us from behind the walls the army had built at all entrances to the palace, and some of the protesters were injured in the leg and head," protester Karim el-Shaer told Reuters.
The build-up to the first day of voting saw clashes between supporters and opponents of Morsi in which eight people died. Recent demonstrations in Cairo have been more peaceful, although rival factions clashed on Friday in Alexandria, Egypt's second city.
A judges' club urged its members on Tuesday not to supervise Saturday's vote. But the call is not binding and balloting is expected to go ahead.
If the constitution is passed, national elections can take place early next year, something many hope will help end the turmoil that has gripped Egypt since the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak almost two years ago.
But the closeness of the first day of voting and the low turnout suggest more difficulties ahead for Morsi as he seeks to rally support for difficult economic reforms.
"This percentage . . . will strengthen the hand of the [opposition] National Salvation Front, and the leaders of this Front have declared they are going to continue this fight to discredit the constitution," said Mustapha Kamal Al-Sayyid, a professor of political science at Cairo University.
Morsi is likely to become more unpopular with the introduction of planned austerity measures, Sayyid told Reuters.
To tackle the budget deficit, the government needs to raise taxes and cut fuel subsidies. Uncertainty surrounding economic reform plans has already prompted the postponement of a $4.8 billion loan from the International Monetary Fund. The Egyptian pound has fallen to eight-year lows against the dollar.
Morsi and his backers say the constitution is needed to move Egypt's democratic transition forward. Opponents say it is too Islamist and ignores the rights of women and of minorities, including 10 percent of Egyptrians who are Christian.
Demonstrations erupted when Morsi awarded himself extra powers on Nov. 22 and then fast-tracked the constitution through an assembly dominated by his Islamist allies and boycotted by many liberals.
The referendum has had to be held over two days because many of the judges needed to oversee polling staged a boycott in protest. In order to pass, the constitution must be approved by more than 50 percent of those voting.
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